Publications 2021

Calibration-Free Potentiometric Sensing With Solid-Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes, Rousseau, C., Bühlmann, P, Trends in Anal. Chem., 2021, (Accepted).

Publications 2020

Fluorous-Phase Ion-Selective pH Electrodes: Electrode Body and Ionophore Optimization for Measurements in the Physiological pH Range, Chen, X.; Mousavi, M.; Bühlmann, P. ACS Omega2020, 5 (23) 13621-13629.

Reference Electrodes Based on Ionic Liquid Doped Reference Membranes with Biocompatible Silicone Matrixes, Chen, X; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P. ACS Sensors, 2020, 5(6),1717-1725. full-text

Solid-Contact Ion-Selective and Reference Electrodes Covalently Attached to Functionalized Poly(ethylene terephthalate), Anderson, E.; Chopade, S.; Spindler, B.; Stein, A.; Lodge, T.; Hillmyer, M.; Bühlmann, P. Anal. Chem, 2020, 92 (11) 7621–7629. full text

Critical Comparison of Reference Electrodes with Salt Bridges Contained in Nanoporous Glass with 5, 20, 50, and 100 nm Diameter Pores Anderson, E. L., Troudt, B., Bühlmann, P. Analytical Sciences2020, 36(2), 187. full text

Publications 2019

Ionic Liquid-based Reference Electrodes for Miniaturized Ion Sensors: What Can Go Wrong?, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Abd El-Rahman, M. K.; Tan, E. K.; Sigurslid, H. H.; Arkan, N.; Lane, J. S., Bühlmann, P., Whitesides, G. Sens. Actuators B, 2019, 301, 127112. full text

Indirect Potentiometric Determination of Polyquaternium Polymer Concentrations by Equilibrium Binding to 1-Dodecyl Sulfate, Anderson, E. L.; Samaniego, P. D.; Bühlmann, P. Anal. Sci. 201935, 679–684. full text 

More than a Liquid Junction: Effect of Stirring, Flow Rate, and Inward and Outward Electrolyte Diffusion on Reference Electrodes with Salt Bridges Contained in Nanoporous Glass. Anderson, E. L.; Lodge, T. P.; Gopinath, T.; Veglia, G.; Bühlmann, P. Anal. Chem. 2019, 91 (12), 7698−7704. full text

Potentiometric Selectivities of Ionophore-Doped Ion-Selective Membranes: Concurrent Presence of Primary Ion or Interfering Ion Complexes of Multiple Stoichiometries. Yilmaz, I.; Chen, L. D.; Chen, X. V.; Anderson, E. L.; da Costa, R. C.; Gladysz, J. A.; Bühlmann, P. Anal. Chem. 2019, 91(3), 2409-2417. full text

Remediation of Perfluorooctylsulfonate Contamination by in Situ Sequestration: Direct Monitoring of PFOS Binding to Polyquaternium Polymers, Anderson, E. L., Mousavi, M. P. S., Aly, Y. H., Chen, X. V., Simcik, M. F., Buhlmann, P. ACS Omega20194 (1), 1068-1076. full text

Publications 2018

In-Situ Sensing of the Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine in a Dynamic Range of 1 nM to 1 mM, Abd El-Rahman, M.; Mousavi, M. S.; Mahmoud, A.; Abdelsalam, R.; Buhlmann, P. ACS Sens.2018, 3(12), 2581-2589. full text

Stress and mental health in graduate school: How student empowerment creates lasting change, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Sohrabpour, Z.; Anderson, E. L.; Stemig-Vindedahl, A.; Golden, D.; Christenson, G.; Lust, K.; Bühlmann, P. J. Chem. Ed., 2018, 95(11), 1939-1946. full text

Redox Buffer Capacity of Ion-Selective Electrode Solid Contacts Doped with Organometallic Complexes, Zhen, X. V.; Rousseau, C. R.; Buhlmann, P. Anal. Chem., 2018, 90, 11000-11007 full text

Non-Covalent Surface Modification of Graphene Using Pyrene and Cyclodextrin Derivatives, Zhen, X. V.; Swanson, E.; Nelson, J.; Zhang, Y.; Su, Q.; Koester, S.; Buhlmann, P. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfac. 2018, 1, 2718-2726. full text

Cleaning of pH Selective Electrodes with Ionophore-Doped Fluorous Membranes in NaOH Solution at 90 ºC, Lugert-Thom, E. C.; Gladysz, J. A.; Rabai, J.; Bühlmann, P. Electroanalysis 2018, 30, 611-618. full text

Functionalized Mesoporous Polymers with Enhanced Performance as Reference Electrode Frits, Anderson, E. L.; Saba, S. A.; Loomis, D. J.; Buhlmann, P.; Hillmyer, M. A., ACS Appl. Nano Mat. 2018, 1, 139–144. full text

Paper-Based All-Solid-State Ion-Sensing Platform with a Solid Contact Comprising Colloid-Imprinted Mesoporous Carbon and a Redox Buffer, Hu, J.; Zhao, W.; Bühlmann, P.; Stein, A., ACS Appl. Nano Mat. 2018, 1, 293–301. full text

Elucidating the Role of AgCl in the Nucleation and Growth of Silver Nanoparticles in Ethylene Glycol, Chen, S.; Carey, J. L., III; Whitcomb, D. R.; Bühlmann, P.; Penn, R. L., Cryst. Growth Des., 2018, 18, 324–330. full text

Publications 2017

Capacitive Sensing of Glucose in Electrolytes Using Graphene Quantum Capacitance Varactors, Zhang, Y.; Ma, R.; Zhen, X.; Kudva, Y.; Buhlmann, P.; Koester, S., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 38863–38869. full text

Self-supporting, Hydrophobic, Ionic Liquid-Based Reference Electrodes Prepared by Polymerization-Induced Microphase Separation, Chopade, S. A.; Anderson E. L.; Schmidt, P. W.; Lodge, T. P.; Hillmyer M. A.; and Bühlmann P., ACS sensors 2017, 2, 1498–1504.  full text (selected as an ACS Editors' Choice highlight)

Semifluorinated Polymers as Ion-Selective Electrode Membrane Matrix, Carey, J. L. III; Hirao, A.; Sugiyama, K.; Buhlmann, P., Electroanalysis 2017, 29, 739–747. full text

Publications 2016

Avoiding Errors in Electrochemical Measurements: Effect of Frit Material on the Performance of Reference Electrodes with Porous Frit Junctions, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Saba, S. A.; Anderson, E. L.; Hillmyer, M. A;. Buhlmann, P., Anal. Chem. 2016, 88, 8706–8713 full text

One-Dimensional Ionic Self-Assembly in a Fluorous Solution: The Structure of Tetra-n-butylammonium Tetrakis[3,5-bis(perfluorohexyl)phenyl]borate in Perfluoromethylcyclohexane by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Rubinson, K. A.; Buhlmann, P.; Allison, T. C, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2016, 18, 9470-9475. full text

New Perspectives on Silver Nanowire Formation from Dynamic Silver Ion Concentration Monitoring and Nitric Oxide Production in the Polyol Process, Whitecomb, D. R.; Clapp, A. R.; Buhlmann, P.; Blinn, J. C.; Zhang, J., Cryst. Growth Des. 2016, 16, 1861-1868. full text

Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors: Structures that Optimize Specific Energy, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Wilson, B. E.; Kashefolgheta, S.; Anderson, E. L.; He, S.; Buhlmann, P.; Stein, A., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 3396-3406. full text

A Disposable Planar Paper-Based Potentiometric Ion-Sensing Platform, Hu, J.; Stein, A.; Buhlmann, P., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2016, 55, 7544-7547. full text (Highlighted in C&E News)

Donnan Failure of Ion-Selective Electrodes with Hydrophilic High-Capacity Ion-Exchanger Membranes, Ogawara, S.; Carey III, J. L.; Zou, X. U.; Buhlmann, P., ACS Sensors, 2016, 1, 95-101. full text

Rational Design of All-Solid-State Ion-Selective Electrodes and Reference Electrodes, Hu, J.; Stein, A.; Buhlmann, P., TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 2016, 76, 102-114. (Tutorial review on solid-state potentiometric sensors) full text

ELectrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Ion-Selective Membranes: Artifacts in Two-, Three-, and Four-Electrode Measurements, Anderson, E. L.; Buhlmann, P., Anal. Chem. 2016, 88, 9738–9745. full text

Ion Aggregation and N+-C-H NR3 Hydrogen Bonding in a Fluorous Phase, Anderson, E. L.; Gingery, N. M.; Boswell, P. G.; Chen, X. V.; Rabai, J., Buhlmann, P., J. Phys. Chem. B 2016, 120, 11239–11246. full text

Publications 2015

Potentiometric In Situ Monitoring of Anions in the Synthesis of Copper and Silver Nanoparticles Using the Polyol Process, Carey III, J. L.; Whitcomb, D. R.; Chen, S.; Penn, L.R.; Buhlmann, P., ACS Nano 2015, 9, 12104-12114. full text

Electrochemical Stability of Quaternary Ammonium Cations: An Experimental and Computational Study, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Kashefolgheta, S.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P., J. Electrochem. Soc. 2015, 163, H74-H80. full text

Unbiased Quantification of the Electrochemical Stability Limits of Electrolytes and Ionic Liquids, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Dittmer, A. J.; Wilson, B. E.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P., J. Electrochem. Soc. 2015, 162, A2250-A2258. full text

Dynamic Silver Speciation as Studied with Fluorous-Phase Ion-Selective Electrodes: Effect of Natural Organic Matter on the Toxicity and Speciation of Silver, Mousavi, M. P. S.; Gunsolus, I. L.; Pérez de Jesús, C. E.; Lancaster, M.; Hussein, H.; Haynes, C. L.; Buhlmann, P., Sci. Total Environ. 2015, 537, 453-461. full text

All-Solid-State Reference Electrodes Based on Colloid-Imprinted Mesoporous Carbon and Their Application in Disposable Paper-based Potentiometric Sensing Devices, Hu, J.; Ho, K. T.; Zou, X. U.; Smyrl, W. H.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P. Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, 2981–2987full text

Ion-Selective Electrodes and Reference Electrodes with a Solid Contact Having Mesoporous Carbon, Hu, J.; Stein, A.; Buhlmann, P. U.S. Patent Application: 14/716,564. Filed on May 2015

Ionic Liquid Reference Electrodes With a Well-Controlled Co(II)/Co(III) Redox Buffer as Solid Contact, Zou, X. U.; Chen, L. D.; Lai, C.-Z.; Bühlmann, P., Electroanalysis 2015, 27, 602–608. full text

In Situ Atomic Resolution Studies of the Electrode/Solution Interface By Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Thorgaard, S. N.; Buhlmann, P., In Nanoelectrochemistry, Mirkin, M. V.; Amemiya, S., Eds.; CRC Press, London, 2015, pp 695–748. full text

Electrochemical Reduction of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene in Aprotic and pH-Buffered Media, Olson, E. J.; Isley, W. C., III; Brennan, J. E.; Cramer, C. J.; Bühlmann, P. J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119, 13088–13097. full text

Effects of Humic and Fulvic Acids on Silver Nanoparticle Stability, Dissolution, and Toxicity, Gunsolus, I. L.; Mousavi, M. P. S.; Buhlmann, P., Haynes, C. L. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 8078–8086. full text

Hierarchically Porous Polymer Monoliths by Combining Controlled Macro- and Microphase Separation, Saba, S. A.; Mousavi, M. P. S.; Bühlmann, P.; Hillmyer, M. A., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 8896–8899full text

Publication 2014

Calibration-Free Ionophore-Based Ion-Selective Electrodes With a Co(II)/Co(III) Redox Couple-Based Solid Contact, Zou, X. U.; Zhen, X. V.; Cheong, J. H.; Bühlmann, P. Anal. Chem., 2014, 86, 8687–8692.

Paper-Based Potentiometric Ion Sensing, Lan, W.; Zou, X. U.; Hamedi, M. M.; Hu, J.; Parolo, C.; Maxwell, E. J.; Bühlmann, P.; Whitesides, G. M. Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 9548–9553.

 Ion-Selective Electrodes with Colloid-Imprinted Mesoporous Carbon as Solid Contact, Hu, J.; Zou, X. U.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P., Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 7111–7118.

Paper-Based Reference Electrode and Potentiometric Ion Sensing, Wan, W.; Maxwell, E.; Parolo, C.; Bwambok, D.; Thuo, M.; Subramaniam, A.; Whitesides, G.; Zou, X.; Hu, J.; Buhlmann, P.  WO1 patent application 0042697.00391, April 2014

Publications 2013

Three Dimensionally Ordered Mesoporous (3DOm) Carbon Materialas Electrodes for Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors with Ionic Liquid Electrolytes, Anh Vu,  Xiaoyue Li, John Phillips, Aijie Han, William H. Smyrl, Philippe Bühlmann, Andreas Stein Chem. Mater., Accepted, September 2013.

Reference Electrodes with Salt Bridges Contained in Nanoporous Glass: An Underappreciated Source of Error, Maral P.S. Mousavi and Philippe Bühlmann, Anal. Chem. 2013, 85 (19), pp 8895–8901

Solid Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes With a Well- Controlled Co(II)/Co(III) Redox Buffer Layer;Xu U. Zou , Jia H. Cheong , Brandon James Taitt , and Philippe Bühlmann, Anal. Chem., 2013, 85 (19), pp 9350–9355.

Fluorous Membrane Ion-Selective Electrodes for Perfluorinated Surfactants: Trace Level Detection and In-Situ Monitoring of Adsorption onto Sand; Chen, L. D.§ ; Lai, C.-Z.§ ; Granda, L. P. ; Fierke, M. ; Mandal, D.; Stein, A.; Gladysz, J. A.; Bühlmann, P., Anal. Chem,.2013, 85 (15), pp 7471–7477.(§These authors contributed equally to this work)

Characterization of Silver Ion Dissolution from Silver Nanoparticles using Fluorous-phase Ion-selective Electrodes and Assessment of Resultant Toxicity to Shewanella oneidensis: Melisa A. Maurer-Jones, Maral P. S. Mousavi, Li D Chen, Philippe Buhlmann, Christy Haynes, Chem. Sci., 2013, 4, 2564-2572

Current Pulse Based Reference Electrodes Without Liquid Junctions; Zou, Xu; Buhlmann, Philippe, Anal. Chem., 2013, 85 (8), pp 3817–3821

Lifting of the (√3 x 22) Surface Reconstruction of Au(111) in Halide Solutions as a Sensitive Probe to Monitor Adsorption of Cyclodextrin and Its Complexes; Thorgaard, S. N.; Bühlmann, P., Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2013, 693, pp1-8

Quenching Performance of Surfactant-containing and Surfactant-free Fluorophore-doped Mesoporous Silica Films for Nitroaromatic Compound Detection, Anh Vu, John Phillips, Philippe Bühlmann, and Andreas Stein, Chemistry of Materials, 2013, 25 (5) pp 711-722.

Unbiased Assessment of Electrochemical Windows: Minimizing Mass Transfer Effects on the Evaluation of Anodic and Cathodic Limits, Olson E. J. Bühlmann, P., Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2013, 160 (2) ppA320-A323.

Publications 2012

A Highly Selective Cyanide-Selective Electrode Based on Zn(II) Tetraphenylporphyrin as Ionophore, Chen, L. D.;Zou, Xu U ;Bühlmann, P., Anal. Chem., 2012, 84 (21), pp 9192–9198

Receptor-Based Detection of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene using Modified Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Carbon Electrodes, Fierke, M.; Olson, E. J., Bühlmann, P.; Stein, A., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2012, 4 (9), pp 4731–4739

Advantages and Limitations of Reference Electrodes with an Ionic Liquid Junction and Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Carbon as Solid Contact, Zhang, Tiantian; Lai, Chun-Ze; Fierke, Melissa; Stein, Andreas; Buhlmann, Philippe, Anal. Chem., 2012, 84 (18), pp 7771–7778

Ion-Selective Electrodes With Ionophore-Doped Sensing Membranes. In Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials; Steed, A. W., Ed, Gale P. A., Ed; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: New York, 2012; Vol. 5, p 2539.(

Self-assembled monolayers formed by 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin and cobalt 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine on iodine-passivated Au(1 1 1) as observed using electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, Thorgaard, S. N.; Bühlmann, P., Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 664, 2012, 94–99.

Ion-Selective Electrodes with Unusual Response Functions: Simultaneous Formation of Ionophore-Primary Ion Complexes with Different Stoichiometries, Miyake, M; Chen, L. D.; Pozzi, G; Bühlmann, P,Anal. Chem., 2012, 84 (2), pp 1104–1111

Publications 2011

Potentiometric Sensors Based on Fluorous Membranes Doped with Highly Selective Ionophores for Carbonate, Chen, L. D.; Mandal, De; Pozzi, G; Gladysz, J.; Bühlmann, P, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133 (51), pp 20869–20877

Getting More Out of a Job’s Plot: Determination of Reactant:Product Stoichiometry in Cases of Displacement Reactions and n:n Complex Formation, Olson, E.; Bühlmann, P. J. Org. Chem., 2011, 76 (20), 8406–8412.

Interaction of a Weakly Acidic Dinitroaromatic with Alkylamines: Avoiding the Meisenheimer Trap, Olson, E.; Xiong, T.; Cramer, C.J.; Bühlmann, P. JACS, 2011, 133 (32), 12858-12865.

Voltage-induced chemical contrast in scanning tunneling microscopy using tips chemically modified with hydrogen bond donors, Gingery, D.; Bühlmann, P., Surf. Sci.2011, 605, 1099–1102.

Publications 2010

Highly Selective Detection of Silver in the Low ppt Range with Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on Ionophore-Doped Fluorous Membranes, Lai, C.-Z.; Fierke, M. A.; Corrêa da Costa, R.; Gladysz, J. A.; Stein, A.; Bühlmann, P., Anal. Chem. 2010, 82, 7634–7640.

Redox Pontial and C-H Bond Cleaving Properties of a Nonheme Fe IV=O Complex in Aqueous Solution, Wang , D.; Zhang, M.; Bühlmann, P.; Que, L., Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc.2010, 132, 7638–7644.

Chemical Stability and Application of a Fluorophilic Tetraalkylphosphonium Salt in Fluorous Membrane Anion-Selective Electrodes, Chen, L. D.; Mandal, D.; Gladysz, J. A.; Bühlmann, P., New J. Chem. 2010, 34, 1867–1874.

Minimizing Solvent Waste in the Undergraduate Analytical Lab: A Microcell for Cyclic Voltammetry , Olson, E. J., Bühlmann, P. J. Chem. Ed., 2010, 87, 1260–1261

Bromine-Passivated Au(111) as a Platform for the Formation of Organic Self-Assembled Monolayers Under Electrochemical Conditions, Thorgaard, S. N.; Bühlmann, P., Langmuir 2010, 26, 7133–7137.

Electrochemistry with Media of Exceptionally Low Polarity: Voltammetry in a Fluorous Solvent, Olson, E. J.; Boswell, P. G.; Givot, B. L.; Yao, L.; B ü hlmann, P., J. Electroanal. Chem. 2010 , 639, 154–160.

Effects of Architecture and Surface Chemistry of Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Carbon Solid Contacts on Performance of Ion-Selective Electrodes, Fierke, M. A.; Lai, C.-Z., Bühlmann, P., Stein, A., Anal. Chem. 2010 , 82, 680–688. Abstract

Cation-Coordinating Properties of Perfluoro-15-Crown-5, Lai, C.-Z.; Reardon, M. E.; Boswell, P. G.; Buhlmann, P., J. Fluor. Chem.2010, 131, 42–46. 

Publications 2009

Fluorous Polymeric Membranes for Ionophore-Based Ion-Selective Potentiometry, Lai, C.-Z.; Koseoglu, S. S.; Lugert, E. C.; Boswell, P. G.; Rábai, J.; Lodge, T. P.; Bühlmann, P., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 1598–1606. 

Subnanomolar Detection Limit Application of Ion-Selective Electrodes with Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous (3DOM) Carbon Solid Contacts, Lai, C.-Z.; Joyer, M. M.; Fierke, M. A.; Petkovich, N. D.; Stein, A.; Buhlmann, P., J. Solid State Electrochem 2009, 13, 123–128. 

Structure Determination of Organic Compounds–Tables of Spectral Data, Pretsch, E.; Bühlmann, P.; Badertscher, M., 4 th, revised and enlarged edition, Springer Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2009.
{German translation published 2010.}

Publications 2008

Formation of gold nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotubes by thermal evaporation, Gingery, D.; Bühlmann, P., Carbon2008, 46, 1966–1972. 

Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids, Boswell, P. G.; Anfang, A. C.; Bühlmann, P., J. Fluor. Chem.2008, 129, 961–967. 

Assessment of Density Functionals, Semiempirical Methods, and SCC-DFTB for Protonated Creatinine Geometries, Settergren, N. M., Bühlmann, P.; Amin, E. A., J. Mol. Struct. Theochem., 2008, 861, 68–73. 

Fluorophilic Ionophores for Potentiometric pH Determinations with Fluorous Membranes of Exceptional Selectivity, Boswell, P. G.; Szíjjártó, C.; Jurisch, M.; Gladysz, J.; R á bai, J.; B ü hlmann, P., Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 2084-2090 . 

Effect of Spacer Geometry on Oxoanion Binding by Bis- and Tetrakis-Thiourea Hosts, Leung, A. N.; Degenhardt, D. A.; Bühlmann, P. Tetrahedron 2008, 64, 2530–2536. 

Plasticization of Amorphous Perfluoropolymers, Lugert, E. C.; Lodge, T. P., Bühlmann, P., J. Polym. Sci. B.: Polym. Phys. 2008, 46, 516–525.

Response Mechanism of Ion-Selective Electrodes Based on a Guanidine Ionophore: An Apparently “Two-Thirds Nernstian” Response Slope, Koseoglu, S. S.; Lai, C.-Z.; Ferguson, C.; Bühlmann, P.. Electroanalysis, 2008, 20, 331–339.